In practice, the phenol and formaldehyde are first polymerized to a small extent by using the proper choice of catalyst and temperature. The first synthetic polymer, a phenol-formaldehyde polymer, was introduced under the name “Bakelite Bakelite was originally used to make billiard balls. In general, phenol taken in excess acts as the cross-linking agent. It is added to lubricants to reduce surface friction. In general, the condensation polymer (or) phenolic resin is Bakelite. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. These intermediate condensation products are used as resins in different industries. Bakelite is obtained from phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of either an acid or a base catalyst. Unlike linear and branched polymers, which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. Major industrial polymers - Major industrial polymers - Phenol formaldehyde: Many people date the beginning of the modern plastics industry to 1907, when Leo Hendrik Baekeland, a Belgian-born American chemist, applied for a patent on a phenol-formaldehyde thermoset that eventually became known by the trademarked name Bakelite. Since Bakelite is a manufactured, synthetic plastic containing incredible amounts of formaldehyde, asbestos and other extremely toxic polymers, those who produced these desirable products, put themselves at risk. Polymers Class 12 MCQs Questions with Answers. Bakelite was invented in the early twentieth century but it is an important topic of study even in this 21st century. Your email address will not be published. Now coming to the uses of Bakelite, since this element has a low electrical conductivity and high heat resistance it can be used in manufacturing electrical switches and machine parts of electrical systems. The characteristics of Bakelite made it particularly suitable as a molding compound, an adhesive or binding agent, a varnish, and a protective coating. Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance to electricity, heat, and chemical action. Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland. Overview of Structure Of Bakelite. Answer: Explaination: (a) and (c) e.g. Several synthetic condensation polymers discussed include nylon, kevlar, polyester, Bakelite, Melamine, polycarbonates, polyurethanes, epoxies. 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Condensation polymers are formed by the combination of monomers with the elimination of simple molecules such as H 2 O or CH 3 OH. Polymers has high molecular mass. Along came Bakelite – which is the first example of a truly synthetic polymer (the rest were just modifications of cellulose). Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol and formaldehyde. Very smooth molding can be obtained from this polymer. The ease of molding polymers into different shapes and their relatively low cost of production has been the main reason for their universal usage. The condensation reaction of the two reactants in a controlled acidic or basic medium results in the formation of ortho and para hydroxymethyl phenols and their derivatives. LDPE. Answer/Explanation. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. Bakelite is obtained when Novolac is allowed to undergo cross-linking in the presence of a cross-linking agent. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. All India 2013) Answer: Teflon Monomer Tetrafluoroethylene Type Addition polymer Bakelite Monomer Phenol and Formaldehyde Type Condensation polymer Natural Rubber Monomer Isoprene She contributed to The Spruce for over 11 years.The Spruce Crafts uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. The properties of Bakelite are studied to get information regarding its commercial usage. Which of the following is an example of thermosetting polymers? We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. Bakelite Bakelite is one of the earliest commercial plastics. There are two types of Condensation polymers: 1. Bakelite is an example of polymer. (d) Soften on heating and harden on cooling, can be reused. They are also resistant to several destructive solvents. Low Density Polyethylene, made from the polymerization of monomer ethylene or ethene units. B Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. For a more detailed treatment, see Bakelite. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. Bakelite B. Melamine C. Branched D. Cross-linked 10.Orientation of monomer units in a polymer molecule A. Tacticity B. Graft C. Linear D. Monomer arrangement 11.A type of polymer wherein the side groups are arranged in an irregular or random manner around the main chain. It is a thermosetting polymer and Bakelite has high strength meaning it basically retains its form even after extensive molding. Your email address will not be published. At the time, safety and health precautions were not mandatory. Identify compound X in the following sequence of reactions: Identify a molecule which does not exist. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. Bakelite is also known as phenol formaldehyde resin and it is a type of condensation polymer. Owing to its low electrical conductivity, bakelite is resistant to electric current. The physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of Bakelite make it a widely used commercial polymers. (Comptt. C) The polymer has alternating double and single bonds between carbons, while the monomer has only double bonds between carbons. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. In Wolff‐Kishner reduction, the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is converted into. Polyester. To make it stronger and to make more of it, filler such as sawdust is often added. Consider the weight of a piece of plastic jewelry. The chemical formula of bakelite can be written as (C6H6O-CH2OH)n. Some important properties of bakelite are listed below. Bakelite is one of the earliest synthetic polymers. The monomers used are lactic acid and glycolic acid. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite, formed from the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, became hugely popular – perhaps you have seen products with Bakelite, such as … Initial methods of preparing bakelite involved the heating of formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of one of the following catalysts -zinc chloride (ZnCl2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonia (NH3). Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. The commercial development of this PF material is … (a) Heavily branched cross linked polymers, (b) Linear slightly branched long chain molecules. 2. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin called “Novolak,” which never became a market success. HDPE is composed of macromolecules in which n ranges from 10,000 to … This can occur at the ortho and It is used as friction modifier. On electrolysis of dil.sulphuric acid using Platinum (Pt) electrode, the product obtained at anode will be: An element has a body centered cubic (bcc) structure with a cell edge of 288 pm. Bakelite is an example of (a) elastomer (b) fibre (c) thermoplastic (d) thermosetting. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. A substance which has a molecular structure built completely from a large number of similar units bonded together known as polymers. Further, Bakelite has been used for making the handles of a variety of utensils. Used as the basis for Bakelite, PFs were the first commercial synthetic resins (plastics). Bakelite is the commercial name for the polymer obtained by the polymerization of phenol and formaldehyde. They are further used for protective purposes as well as in the coating industry. B) The polymer has alternating double and single bonds between carbons, while the monomer has only single bonds between carbons. Common polymers and their uses are: Bakelite. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. Before it has set, the resin can be cast in a mould; once set, it is hard enough to be drilled, and does not soften again or … Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. Given that the ionic product of $Ni(OH)_2$ is $2 \times 10^{-15}$. Write the monomers of the following polymers and classify them as addition or condensation polymers : Teflon, Bakelite and Natural Rubber. Dextron is a polyacetic acid polyglycolic acid polymer. Examples: Nylon, terylene, Bakelite. Bakelite is widely used for making molded products . One of the first plastics made from synthetic components, Bakelite was used for its electrical nonconductivity and heat-resistant properties in electrical insulators , radio and telephone casings and such diverse products as kitchenware , jewelry , pipe stems, children's toys , and … Phenol is made to react with formaldehyde. Whereas, when the quantity of formaldehyde taken is more than that of phenol in the reacting mixture, and the reaction occurs in a basic medium, the condensation product is known as Resol. The atomic radiusis: Find out the solubility of $Ni(OH)_2$ in 0.1 M NaOH. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. A) The polymer has the same properties as the monomer. Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol (C 6 H 5 O H) and formaldehyde (HCHO). Plastic: All the plastic materials are organic polymers with a repeating unit called monomer. Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Polyamide. The Þrst synthetic thermoset polymer (a phenol-formaldehyde (PF)), known as Bakelite, was obtained in 1907 by Baekeland through the polycondensation of phenol with formaldehyde. They are also called macromolecules. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, Arrange the following in increasing order of their intermolecular forces : Nylon-6,6 (I), Buna-S (II), Polythene (III), Hose pipe for delivery of petrol at a petrol pump is made up of. They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. Bake These are one of the oldest polymers that were synthesized by man. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. Some examples of polymers are polythene, bakelite, rubber, etc. Join BYJU’S or download our app to know more about polymers with the most simplified approach of learning. CH 2 O) n. Its chemical name is “polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride”. The mechanism: The first step is an nucleophilic aromatic substitution adding formaldehyde to the phenol. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. What are the Desirable Properties of Bakelite? The cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde has the following structure. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. As such, Bakelite is one of the commercially manufactured polymers that we witness in our daily lives. Some of the plastic structures are drawn below. Phenolic resins are also extensively used as adhesives and binding agents. Select one: Elastomers O Thermoset Thermoplastic Composite Question 16 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 P Flag question The following figure represents Face Centered Cubic structure Select one: True O False When made with this procedure, it is often an amber clear solid. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. Bakelite moldings are heat-resistant and scratch-resistant. The repeating structural unit of most simple polymers not only reflects the monomer(s) from which the polymers are constructed, but also provides a concise means for drawing structures to represent these macromolecules. Bakelite is used for making electrical switches and switch boards. It is one of the most common and important polymers that are used to make different parts of many objects. Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol and formaldehyde. Answer What is Bakelite? Synthetic condensation polymers have a wide array of household, industrial, commercial, and medical uses and applications. Bakelite was commercialized in 1909Ð1910 [3]. The copolymer formed by addition polymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of peroxide is : Which of the following statements is not true ? Reaction between acetone and methyl magnesium chloride followed by hydrolysis will give : Identify the correct statements from the following: Which of the following set of molecules will have zero dipole moment ? A polymer (/ ˈ p ɒ l ɪ m ər /; Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many repeating subunits. The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. When the phenol is taken in excess and the reaction medium is made acidic, the product of the condensation reaction obtained is acidic. It is copolymer and has ester linkage. Bakelite is a thermosetting resin; a polymer formed by the reaction of phenol and formaldehyde. It was used in camera making from the 1930s to the 1960s. For polyethylene, arguably the simplest polymer, this is demonstrated by the following equation. (c) Become infusible on moulding so cannot be reused. Bakelite is a condensation polymer of formaldehyde and phenol. Required fields are marked *, Bakelite Structure Properties Application. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. Question 1. Which of the following is a branched polymer, having branched chain polysaccharide units ? Here ethylene (ethene) is the monomer, and the corresponding linear polymer is called high-density polyethylene (HDPE). 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